We wanted to see how the genetic structure was shaped during postglacial migration and altitudinal range displacement and we chose to analyze DNA from 11,000-year-old Norway spruce pollen and macrofossils (cones and seeds) retrieved from in a glacial lake sediment in the South Carpathian. We compared ancient and modern DNA data from the

site with fossil pollen data found in the same lake. We found a higher genetic diversity in the ancient chloroplast genome compared to modern day diversity suggesting that living populations are not direct descendants of the ancient ones. This implied that, despite the proximity of a refugium, postglacial colonization does not necessarily occur from local sources in spruce, and that the signal of the refugium may be blurred when studied using modern genomes.

Magyari et al. 2011